This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of recombinant Ovalbumin-LHRL (OL) immunization on changes in testicular size, histological appearance and testosterone production in buck kids. Thirty native buck kids at 18 weeks of age were divided into three groups, control (n = 10), immunization (n = 10) and castration (n = 10) groups. Immunized animals received OL protein generated by recombinant DNA technology. Ultrasonographic and histological examinations of the testes were performed. Animals were slaughtered at 44 weeks of age. Semen and epididymides were evaluated for the presence of sperm cells. Immunized animals generated anti-LHRH antibodies. Testosterone production, testicular and accessory glands development and sperm production were suppressed in the immunized animals (p < 0.01). Semineferous tubule diameters decreased (p < 0.01), basal membrane of the tubule was thickened and hyalinized in immunized kids. Immunization affected ultrasonographic appearance of the testes drastically. While testes of control animals gained their normal ultrasonographic appearance as the age increased, immunized animals had uniform hypoechogenic testicular structure as observed at 18 weeks of age until slaughter. Simultaneous histological and ultrasonographic evaluations indicated that the changes in testicular histology could partly be monitored via ultrasonographic imaging; nevertheless, it is difficult to claim that ultrasonographic image reflects the exact changes in such instances. In conclusion, these results indicate that recombinant OL fusion protein is effective in immunocastration in buck kids and has a potential to be used as an alternative to physical castration. Further researches should be conducted to help assessing reproductive status of testes from ultrasound images.