The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characterization of Turkish bottle gourd germplasm for its adequate conservation and management. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of 40 SSR markers from major cucurbit crops (Cucurbita pepo L. and Cucurbita moschata L.) in 30 bottle gourd landraces, together with 16 SRAP primer combinations. In addition, we compared the genetic relationship between bottle gourd and 31 other cucurbit accessions (11 Cucurbita maxima, 3 C. moschata, 5 C. pepo subsp. ovifera, 10 C. pepo and 2 Luffa cylindrica). Twenty-seven Cucurbita SSR markers showed transferability to bottle gourd. SSR markers amplified 59 alleles, in bottle gourd genome with an average of 1.64 alleles per locus. Together, SSR and SRAP markers amplified 453 fragments across the 61 accessions, and clearly discriminated L. siceraria and L. cylindrica from the other cucurbit species. Genetic diversity analysis separated edible cucurbit from ornamentals, while population structure analysis classified L. siceraria in two subpopulations defined by fruit shape, rather than geographical origin. The results indicated that the genomic resources available for Cucurbita species are valuable to study and preserve the genetic diversity of bottle gourd in Turkey. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.