First electrochemical study of a potent antifungal drug caspofungin: Application to its enhanced voltammetric sensing based on the performance of boron-doped diamond electrode in CTAB-mediated measurements


Ali H. S. , Barzani H. A. H. , Yardım Y., Şentürk Z.

DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, vol.125, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 125
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.diamond.2022.109031
  • Journal Name: DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Caspofungin, Boron-doped diamond electrode, Cationic surfactant, Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Pharmaceutical formulation, MASS-SPECTROMETRY METHOD, CRITICAL MICELLE CONCENTRATION, CARBON-PASTE ELECTRODE, SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION, STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY, CATIONIC SURFACTANTS, INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS, GLASSY-CARBON, HUMAN PLASMA, ADSOLUBILIZATION

Abstract

This present study describes the first electrochemical investigation of caspofungin, which is a semisynthetic echinocandin class of antifungal drug. For this purpose, an electrochemically pretreated (anodically and subsequently cathodically) boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was used. The cyclic voltammetric scans showed a single oxidation step that is irreversible and controlled by a dual mechanism of adsorption and diffusion. For the optimization of experimental conditions, the influence of the electrode pretreatment, pH of the supporting electrolyte, concentration of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), accumulation variables, and instrumental parameters was examined on the current response of caspofungin. The improved sensitivity of the voltammetric measurements was observed due to the synergistic effect of CTAB on the adsorption capacity of BDD electrode in alkaline pH conditions. Employing square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (using open-circuit accumulation for 60 s), the oxidation signal at around +0.45 V allowed to the determination of caspofungin in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 11.0 containing 1 x 10-4 M CTAB. The process could be used in the concentration range from 2.06 x 10-7 to 1.03 x 10-5 M (from 0.25 to 12.5 mu g mL-1 as acetate salt) with a detection limit of 5.27 x 10-8 M (0.064 mu g mL-1 as acetate salt). A technique developed here was used successfully to determine caspofungin concentration in commercial parenteral dosage formulations.