PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, vol.94, pp.339-349, 2015 (SCI-Expanded)
Eremurus spectabilis samples were liquefied in organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone) with (sodium hydroxide and ferric chloride) and without catalyst in a cylindrical reactor at temperatures of 270, 290 and 310 degrees C under supercritical conditions. The effects of liquefaction parameters such as temperature, catalyst and solvent on product yields were investigated. The liquid products were extracted with diethyl ether and benzene using an extraction procedure. The product yields in supercritical methanol, ethanol and acetone were found to as 41.6%, 53.8% and 64.3% in the non-catalytic runs at 310 degrees C, respectively. The highest conversion was obtained in supercritical acetone in the presence of ferric chloride (10%) at same temperature in the catalytic runs. The produced liquids in acetone were analyzed and characterized by elemental, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The liquid products (bio-oils) obtained with acetone contained various types of components including aromatics, nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds. As the bio-oils obtained exhibit high heat values, E. spectabilis is presented as a potential feedstock candidate for production of bio-fuels or valuable chemicals. (C) 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.