Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused not only viral infection-related deaths, but also uncontrollable psychological problems and anxiety in different parts of society. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in adaption of a comprehensive online education period that has not been previously experienced in modern education. Aim: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate dental students' experiences with emergency remote education practices, related levels of anxiety, and sociodemographic factors affecting anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted during the period when social isolation measures were applied at the maximum level and face-to-face education was suspended in all dentistry faculties in Turkey due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Sociodemographic data and anxiety experienced by dental students were investigated using an online questionnaire. The anxiety levels were evaluated by using a 10-Item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and attitudes of the students toward distance education were determined using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: The study included 2.290 students. A total of 76.46% of these students attended to emergency remote education practices provided by their faculty. While 66.7% of students were satisfied with the transition process of their faculty to distance education, 18.4% of them found emergency remote learning to be completely unsuccessful. Mean PSS-10 score was 24.68 ± 6.74 and 94.8% of the students experienced moderate-to-high anxiety during the process. The compulsory and emergency remote education was found to significantly increase anxiety in private university students compared to public university students (P = 0.03) and in those students with low family income than the moderate and high ones (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between PSS-10 levels and students' anxiety about their academic performance, career plans, transition process to distance education, and their desire to continue remote theoretical online educations. The increase in these aforementioned parameters significantly decreased PSS-10 scores (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The emergency online remote education practices during the COVID-19 pandemic caused anxiety in dentistry students. It is expected that only distance education practices would be insufficient, and blended education models consisting of distance and face-to-face practices should be implemented.