A dissociative tendency in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has long been documented. It is recognized that dissociative symptoms in OCD may interfere with response to treatment. The current study investigated whether cognitive vulnerability factors are differentially associated with dissociative experiences and obsessive-compulsive (O-C) symptoms in a general population sample. Moreover, using the mixture structural equation modeling (MSEM) approach, we explored whether a latent psychopathological profile exists that may differ in severity of dissociation, O-C symptoms, and cognitive vulnerability factors in the sample. The structural equation analysis showed that probabilistic inferences directly contributed to the variances of both dissociative and O-C symptoms. Probabilistic inferences mediated the relationships of meta-cognitions with both dissociation and O-C symptoms. Obsessional beliefs were directly associated with O-C symptoms and indirectly contributed to dissociation via obsessions. Two latent profiles emerged in the MSEM: a healthy group and a psychopathological group. Participants classified into the latent psychopathological profile were high in O-C symptoms and dissociation as well as cognitive vulnerability factors of meta-cognitions, obsessional beliefs, and probabilistic inferences. The mixture analysis provided further support for the significant associations between the variables of interest. Further research is needed to better understand the underpinnings of the relationships between O-C symptoms and dissociation.