Synthesis and characterization of novel organo-hydrogel based agar, glycerol and peppermint oil as a natural drug carrier/release material

Alpaslan D., Erşen Dudu T., Aktaş N.

MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING C-MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, vol.118, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 118
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111534
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Agar, Carboplatin, Controlled release, Organo-hydrogel, Paracetamol, Peppermint oil, DELIVERY, SOLVENT, PH, HEMOCOMPATIBILITY, CARBOPLATIN, ALGINATE, RELEASE, ACID
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The very recent Covid-19 pandemic has made the need to understand biocompatible polymers as support material in drug delivery systems and controlled release clearer, especially for organo-hydrogels. This study aims to synthesize various new polymeric materials called gels, hydrogels, and organo-hydrogels according to the monomer used and to investigate their use as drug release systems. The agar-glycerol (AG) pair was used to synthesize the polymers, N, N, methylene bisacrylamide (MBA, m) and glutaraldehyde (GA, g) were used as cross-linkers and peppermint oil (PmO) was included to obtain the organo-hydrogels. Therefore, one AG gel and two p (AG-m) and p (GA-g) hydrogels were synthesized within the scope of the study. Six different organohydrogels based on p(AG-m-PmO) or p (AG-g-PmO) were also synthesized by varying the amount of peppermint oil. Paracetamol and carboplatin were selected as the sample drugs. Synthesized gels, hydrogels and organohydrogels were characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Additionally, swelling behaviors of the synthesized gels were investigated in different media (ID water, tap water, ethanol, acetone, ethanol/ID water (1:1), acetone/ID water (1:1) and gasoline) and at different pHs. Moreover, it was determined that organo-hydrogels were blood compatible and had antioxidant properties based on hemolysis, blood clotting and antioxidant analysis. Therefore, the release of paracetamol (a known antipyretic-painkiller, recommended and used in the treatment of Covid-19) and carboplatin (widely used in cancer treatment) were studied. Evidently, as the amount of PMO oil increases, the-OH groups in organo-hydrogels will increase and the chemical and physical bonding rates will increase; therefore it was observed that increasing peppermint oil in the organo-hydrogels structure to 0.3 mL stimulated the release of the drugs. For instance, maximum paracetamol release amount from p(AG-g-PmO) and p(AG-m-PmO) organo-hydrogels was calculated to be 72.3% at pH 7.4 and 69.8% at pH 2.0, respectively. The maximum carboplatin release amount from p(AG-g-PmO) and p(AG-m-PmO) organo-hydrogels was calculated to be 99.7% at pH 7.4 and 100% at pH 7.4, respectively. It was concluded that the synthesized organo-hydrogels might easily be used as drug carrier and controlled drug release materials.