We report the optimization with response surface methodology (RSM) for adsorption conditions required for removal of Cd(II) from an aqueous environment with 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane-modified bentonite (MMB). Central composite design (CCD) in RSM was used to optimize the most significant adsorption variables of initial pH, temperature (degrees C), initial Cd(II) concentration (C-o, mg L-1) and adsorbent dosage (g). With the quadratic model equation obtained from CCD, the optimum values were determined as initial pH 6.40, temperature 20 degrees C, C-o 49.55 mg L-1 and adsorbent dosage 0.17 g. Under optimum conditions, the optimum adsorption amount of Cd(II) was 27.55 mg Cd(II)/g adsorbent and adsorption yield was 94.52%. The obtained results showed that the Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms were more suitable for adsorption equilibrium data. The kinetic studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was fitted to the adsorption kinetic data. Additionally, thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. As a result, MMB can be chosen as an effective adsorbent for treating heavy metals such as Cd(II) in wastewater and removing them from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, it is thought that it will positively contribute to the literature since the adsorbent-adsorbate combination (MMB-Cd(II)) is used for the first time.