The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using an open-configuration magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system with MR fluoroscopic guidance to perform percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with lung masses. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration biopsy in patients with lung masses. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration biopsies were performed with MR fluoroscopic guidance in 14 patients. The masses were 2-7 cm in diameter (mean, 4.1 cm). The needle was positioned by using a free-hand technique with MR fluoroscopic guidance. The needle tip reached the target lesion, and biopsy was performed. Analysis of the biopsy specimens facilitated a specific diagnosis in all patients. Pneumothorax was noted in two patients (14%) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Study results showed that the described MR fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic biopsy technique can be used safely and successfully for lung masses. MR fluoroscopy can be used to reach the target lesion easily and accurately. (C) RSNA, 2003.