Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type 1 transmembrane proteins of immune cells that play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. The present study first time aims to investigate the relation between TLR10 gene polymorphisms (720A/C, 992T/A, and 2322A/G), severity/non-severity, fatality/non-fatality, and CCFH disease by using PCR-RFLP assay in a Turkish population. TLR10 720A/C polymorphism was determined to be statistically significant both genotype and allele frequency (P=0,011, P=0.015, respectively). TLR10 992T/A polymorphism was found statistically significant relationships between patient and control (P=0.026) and individual with AA genotype have approximately three times greater risk than TT genotype (OR=2.93). There was not a significant difference in 2322A/G genotype distribution (P=0.152). There were also statistically significant associations between both TLR10 992T/A and 2322A/G polymorphism and patient mortality (P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). We have not found statistically any linkage among TLR10 haplotype, but individual AAA and GAT haplotype have higher risk than individual AAT haplotype (OR=3.22, OR=1.93, respectively). Consequently, this study shows that pathogenesis of CCHF disease is associated with the TLR10 720A/C and 992T/A polymorphisms. There is a statistically significant association in fatal/non-fatal patients with TLR10 720A/C and 992T/A. The TLR10 992AA genotype might increase and TLR10 720CC genotype might decrease susceptibility to pathogenesis of CCHF disease. TLR 10 polymorphisms may be also an important biomarker for CCHF susceptibility and fatality rate.