Background: There is no available published information about the atrial electromechanical coupling time (AEMCT) in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ASD and AEMCT obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods: A total of 35 patients with ASD and 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The time intervals from the onset of the P-wave on the surface electrocardiogram to the beginning of the late diastolic A-wave (PA) representing AEMCT were obtained from the lateral mitral annulus, septal mitral annulus, and right ventricular (RV) tricuspid annulus, and named PA-lateral, PA-septal, and PA-tricuspid, respectively. The difference between PA-septal and PA-tricuspid, PA-lateral and PA-septal, and PA-lateral and PA-tricuspid were defined as intra-right AEMCT, intra-left AEMCT, and inter-AEMCT, respectively. Results: PA-tricuspid, PA-septal, and PA-lateral values were longer in patients with ASD when compared with the controls, but did not reach statistical significance (39.9 +/- 19.1 vs. 37.2 +/- 15.5, P = 0.952; 49.6 +/- 14.0 vs. 45.4 +/- 11.1, P = 0.826 and 60.3 +/- 16.3 vs. 59.7 +/- 12.5, P = 0.437, respectively). There were no significant differences between the ASD and control groups in terms of inter-atrial, intra-right atrial, and intra-left AEMCT (21.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 20.8 +/- 4.6, P = 0.957; 9.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 6.9 +/- 1.3, P = 0.723 and 13.6 +/- 4.7 vs. 10.9 +/- 4.5, P = 0.518, respectively). Furthermore, ASD diameter and total septum length did not correlate with AEMCT. Conclusion: Both intra-and inter-AEMCT were not increased in patients with ASD than control subjects. In addition, we found no association between the ASD diameter and indices of AEMCT in patients with ASD.