Facile preparation of sulfonated carbon particles with pomegranate peels as adsorbent for enhanced methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solutions

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Genel Y., Genel İ., Saka C.

Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-024-05328-4
  • Journal Name: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Activated carbon, Adsorption, Methylene blue, Pomegranate peels, Sulfonation modification
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, in the first stage, activated carbon (AC) is produced from pomegranate peels, which are commonly found in Turkey, by pyrolysis after impregnation with NaOH (PPAC). In the second stage, the surface properties of the obtained PPAC sample are further improved by the sulfonation modification process with sulphuric acid (PPAC-S) for selective MB adsorption. For the characterization of the obtained samples, XRD, FTIR, SEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and EDS analyses were performed. Additionally, the zero charge points (pHzpc) of these samples were also determined. The isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of the MB adsorption process with PPAC-S were examined. The qe values obtained for MB adsorption with PPAC and PPAC-S samples were found to be 98.79 mg/g and 199.18 mg/g, respectively. There is an increase of 100% in MB adsorption with the sulfonated PPAC adsorbent. Maximum adsorption capacity values of MB with the Langmuir model at temperatures of 298, 308, and 318 °C were 212.7, 216.9, and 245.1 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the mechanism of MB adsorption onto PPAC-S was also attempted to be elucidated.