Equine adenovirus type 1 (EAdV-1) is a cause of repiratory tract infection in equids. In present study for the first time in Turkey, the prevalence of EAdV-1 in nasal swab samples obtained from horses showing respiratory symptoms was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and molecular characterization of the hexon gene detected in the Turkish (TR) strain was performed. Overall, the prevalence of EAdV-1 was found low (1.4%) as indicated by a positive PCR reaction from the nasal swab extracts tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the hexon gene of a TR-EAdV-1 strain with those of previously isolated AdVs from different mammals and an EAdV-1 M1 strain showed that the EAdV-1 strains were placed into a unique cluster. Although the TR-EAdV-1 strain was closely related to CAV-1, CAV-2 and bat adenovirus reference strains, larger-scale studies are necessary to better understand the molecular epidemiology and population structure of EAdV-1 in Turkey. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.