A Systematic Review of the Discrimination Against Sexual and Gender Minority in Health Care Settings

Balik C. H., Bilgin H., Uluman O. T., SUKUT Ö., YILMAZ S., BUZLU S.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES, vol.50, no.1, pp.44-61, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0020731419885093
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ASSIA, IBZ Online, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, Geobase, MEDLINE, PAIS International, Political Science Complete, Public Affairs Index, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.44-61
  • Keywords: health care discrimination, barriers to care, access to care, health inequalities, LGBT, homophobia, transphobia, COUNSELORS ATTITUDES, GAY, EXPERIENCES, HOMOPHOBIA, PROVIDERS, PERCEPTIONS, LESBIANS, PEOPLE, HOMOSEXUALITY, ORIENTATION
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: No


The present systematic review aimed to determine discrimination experiences of sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals and attitudes toward SGM among health care staff in health care settings. Following PRISMA guidelines, the review was conducted in 3 databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct) using keywords of sexual and gender minority, including "gay," "lesbian," "bisexual," "transgender," "LGB," "LGBT," "health care discrimination," "stigma," "homophobia," "transphobia," and "attitudes of healthcare professionals" from May to September 2016. Predetermined inclusion criteria were selected. Thirty quantitative studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Discriminative behaviors experienced by SGM individuals were stigma, denial or refusal of health care, and verbal or physical abuse. Knowledge and educational levels, beliefs, and religion of health care providers affected their attitudes toward SGM patients and their homophobia level. These findings revealed that health care providers needed more education about SGM issues, and SGM-friendly policies should be created for improving health care for SGM individuals.