A variety of individual and community level determinants affect contraceptive usage. Traditionally the researches focus on women. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors that are related to the use of contraception and the choice of contraceptive method among men and women in eastern Turkey which has a high fertility rate. The randomly selected study respondents were privately interviewed face-to-faces. A total of 3292 (676 men and 2616 women) respondents between 15 and 50 years of age were interviewed. The prevalence of the use of any form of family planning was 74%. Male condoms were used by 22.9% of the respondents, followed by intrauterine devices (16.7%), oral contraceptives (13.7%) and withdrawal (13%). Lower education level, maternal age at first birth, belief that lactation protects against getting pregnant, incorrect knowledge about contraceptive methods and efficacy were significantly associated with a preference for using less effective traditional methods (p < 0.05). Governments should focus on increasing the education level of men and women, creating greater awareness of family planning methods and their side effects, and increasing male involvement, which can decrease male opposition and thus increase rates of contraceptive use.