We report the fabrication of a novel and highly active nanocatalyst system comprising electrospun carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported ruthenium nanoparticles (NPs) (Ru@CNF), which can reproducibly be prepared by the ozone-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru NPs on electrospun CNFs. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was electropsun into bead-free one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were converted into well-defined 1D CNFs by a two-step carbonization process. We took advantage of an ozone-assisted ALD technique to uniformly decorate the CNF support by highly monodisperse Ru NPs of 3.4 +/- 0.4 nm size. The Ru@CNF nanocatalyst system catalyzes the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of methylamine borane (CH3NH2BH3), which has been considered as one of the attractive materials for the efficient chemical hydrogen storage, with a record turnover frequency of 563 mol H-2/mol Ru x min and an excellent conversion (>99%) under air at room temperature with the activation energy (E-a) of 30.1 kJ/mol. Moreover, Ru@CNF demonstrated remarkable reusability performance and conserved 72% of its inherent catalytic activity even at the fifth recycle.