Objective: Some case reports indicated that red cell status increased after hepatitis C viral infection. The aim of study was to define the influence of hepatitis C infection (HCV) on red cell status in hemodialyzed patients. Materials and methods: A total of 49 ( 21 anti-HCV-positive and 28 anti-HCV-negative) patients with ESRD were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were blood transfusion and massive blood loss in the last 6 months preceding the study. None of the patients used any drug containing aluminum. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was 42.8%. Mean age was 51.6 +/- 14.3 in anti-HCV (+) group and 50.4 +/- 17.0 in anti-HCV (-) group. There was no statistically significant difference between the ages of the 2 groups. Mean duration time of hemodialysis was significantly longer in patients with anti-HCV antibody (+) group (54.9 +/- 34.2 months) compared to anti-HCV-negative group (12.5 +/- 9.0 months) ( p < 0.001). Mean hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels were significantly higher in anti-HCV-positive patients than in anti-HCV- negative patients (Hb: 10.4 +/- 1.8 g/dl, Htc: 30.5 +/- 5.5% vs Hb: 8.8 +/- 1.7 g/ dl, Htc: 26.1 +/- 5.3%) ( for Hb p < 0.005, for Htc p < 0.007). There was no significant difference regarding the usage of rHuEPO between the 2 study groups (57.1% in anti-HCV antibody (+)/59.3% in anti-HCV antibody ( -)) ( p > 0.05). All patients not receiving rHuEPO did so because of economical reasons. Serum AST and ALT levels were significantly higher in the anti-HCV antibody-positive group compared with the anti-HCV antibody-negative group. ( AST p < 0.04, ALT p < 0.04). Conclusion: Anti-HCV antibody-positive ESRD patients have higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels compared to HCV-negative patients.