Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been investigated for many years, especially for tissue regeneration, and have inherent limitations. One of the rapidly developing fields in the scientific world in recent years is extracellular vesicles. Especially, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell originated extracellular vesicles are known to have positive contributions in tissue regeneration, and these extracellular vesicles have also been used as gene transfer systems for cellular therapy. Through gene expression analysis and bioinformatics tools, it is possible to determine which genes have changed in the targeted tissue or cell and which miRNAs that can correct this gene expression disorder. This approach connecting the stem cell, extracellular vesicles, epigenetics regulation and bioinformatics fields is one of the promising areas for the treatment of diseases in the future. With this review, it is aimed to present the studies carried out for the use of bone marrow stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles loaded with targeted miRNAs in different in vivo and in vitro human disease models and to discuss recent developments in this field.