The nanoemulsions: A new design and fat-reducing strategy for the bakery industry. Their effects on some quality attributes of fat-reduced cakes

Meral R., Ekin M. M., Kutlu N., Erim Köse Y.

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, vol.46, no.12, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfpp.17160
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Oil-loaded nanoemulsions (NEs) with a diameter of 192.28-240.70 nm were obtained and NEs (containing 3.75 g nanosized oil) were added to the fat-reduced cake formulation. The fat content decreased by 42.38%, 44.42, and 45.84%. With the fat reduction, the specific volume increased from 2.43 to 3.07 cm(3)/g. It was revealed that cakes with less fat were just as soft as the control. The ABTS (2,2-azino bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical cation scavenging value, which was 62.45 mmol TEAC/g (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity/g) for the control sample, significantly increased with NE replacement. In addition, cakes containing only 3.75 g of a nanosized oil showed sensory qualities similar to the control. Cake samples' greasiness remained the same even though NE-containing samples had less fat. In summary, adding NE to a cake's formulation can improve the functional, oxidative, and physical properties without lowering the cake's quality. Also, NE addition could limit mold and yeast growth. Practical applications The cake is a bakery product consumed by all ages of people. However, its high fat ratio is one of the major problems related to cake. Although researchers and food producers have tried for reducing the fat content with carbohydrate and protein-based fat replacers, it is a big problem to produce a desirable cake without fat. In this sense, nanoemulsions containing nano-scale oil can be the solution to overcome this problem. In this study, nanoemulsions with a diameter of 192.28-240.70 nm were successfully fabricated. The nanoemulsions containing only 3.75 g nano-oil were added to the fat-reduced cake formulation. According to the results, highly acceptable cakes were obtained by nanotechnology. Sensory properties were improved with nanotechnology despite the fat reduction. A novel, cheap, and easy formulation was developed for fat-reduced cakes. Consequently, it was revealed, that nanoemulsions can be successfully used in fat-reduced cake production, also, the functional properties of cakes can be improved via nano-oil.