The genetic relationships among 63 melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes collected from various regions of Turkey were determined by comparing their molecular ISSR, SRAP, and RAPD markers with those of 19 foreign melon genotypes to investigate the taxonomic relationships and genetic variation of Turkish melon germplasm. Total 162 polymorphic markers (69, 18, and 75 obtained from ISSR, SRAP, and RAPD primers, respectively) were used to define the genetic similarity among the melon genotypes by dendro-gram or two and three dimensional scalings. The average similarity (SM coefficient) between any two pairs of accessions examined as estimated by molecular variation was 0.73 +/- 0.48. Within-group genetic similarities ranged between 0.46 and 0.96. Related genotypes or genotypes collected from similar regions were partitioned to similar clusters. Southeastern Anatolian genotypes were distinctly apart from group inodorus and group cantalupensis (sweet) genotypes. This reinforced the position of Turkey in the secondary genetic diversity center of melon. The genetic diversity among Turkish genotypes (H = 0.28 and I = 0.42) was only a little less than that of the world accessions (H = 0.30 and I = 0.45). On the other hand, the percentage of polymorphic loci among Turkish melon genotypes (90.7%) was even higher than that of the world accessions (87.6%). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.