The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n = 20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20 min whereas the SG was exposed to sham operation and CG group was not exposed to any operation. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) was applied to the half number of the subjects in each group. Both before and after 7 days from the ischemia, operated animals were taken to PAL and then they were sacrificed. Total numbers of neurons in the hippocampus were stereologically estimated using Cresyl violet stained sections. We detected that number of neurons was increased following PAL and especially spermine treatment. According to our results, we suggested that spermine may reduce the deleterious effects of the ischemia by causing to increase in the neuronal number and so, it may be slightly supportive to the PAL.