Nemrut Caldera Nature Monument (Tatvan/Bitlis) Natural and Bio-tourism Features

Adızel Ö., YILDIZ M. Z., TOYRAN K., Akkuş M., BULUM E., Azizoğlu E., ...More

International Conference on Multidisciplinary, Science, Engineering and Technology (IMESET’17,Bitlis),, Bitlis, Turkey, 27 - 29 October 2017, pp.268

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Bitlis
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.268
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Nemrut volcanism, which has stratovolcano features in terms of formation, is name after the Babylon Emperor Narmuk who lived around 2100 BC. The word which means passive volcano in Persian, has turned into Nemrut in time. It is thought that the crater was formed in the Pliocene period. The lava that came out during the formation accumulated on the edges of the chimney and its height reached over 4000 metres. However, the chimney was destroyed following the last two eruptions and the highest peak decreased to 2935 metres. Data show that the last eruption occurred in 1411. Nemrut Crater, where the largest caldera lake of Turkey is located, is an environment which offers unique geological opportunities for people who are interested in this. The lake allows water sports and amateur fishing activities. Crater lakes located in high altitudes are oligotrophic lakes and have clearer water and offer better underwater visibility compared to other lakes. For that reason, they are suitable for high altitude diving for divers. There is also hot water outlet in some parts which can be considered as thermal. The area is quite photogenic in every season of the year. If necessary course arrangements are made, there are ideal opportunities for trekking, skiing and climbing. Paragliders are also seen in the area. Road construction, lift and the hotel built on the foothill of the crater have added value to the area. The area also has a great potential for highland tourism. Nemrut Caldera Natural Monument offers a rich biodiversity. In addition to plant diversity, at least 82 bird species, 13 reptiles and 3 amphibious species live in the area. There are 3 fish species in the crater lake, one of which is endemic. Among those fish, especially Cprinus carpio (Common Carp) is an ideal species for amateur fishing. At least 11 mammal species live in the caldera including Ursus arctos (Brown Bear). Nemrut Crater is beautiful enough to attract people in every season of the year. If necessary recreations are made, the area has the potential to diversify and contribute significantly in the tourism of Bitlis Province. Therefore, it should be made facilities such as restaurant, cafe, toilet and suitable picnic area, adequate garbage should be place bins within the field and garbage collected regularly, same informative sign and brochures should be prepare. It should be increase the control to inhibit illegal collection of plants and hunting activities.