Objective: This study investigated the relationship between diabetes (DM) and nitrite, nitrate and MDA levels and effect of melatonin and pentoxifylline. Methods: Sixty mice were randomly divided into four groups. Control: no action; Diabetes group (DM): after fasting-blood-glucose (FBG) was measured, 150 mg/kg alloxane was applied intraperitoneally three-times every other day; Diabetes + Melatonin (DM + MLT) and Diabetes + Pentoxifylline groups (DM + PTX): following the same procedures with DM, 10 mg/kg melatonin and 50 mg/kg pentoxifylline were administered subcutaneously six days, respectively. Following FBG analysis, brain tissues were taken under the anaesthesia. Nitrite, nitrate and MDA levels were measured. Results: In the all groups with alloxane, FBG were higher than in before application (p < .05). Also, FBG, nitrite, nitrate and MDA levels in the DM + MLT and DM + PTX groups were lower than in the DM (p < .05). Conclusions: Nitrite and nitrate may be related to etiopathogenesis of DM, and pentoxifylline and especially melatonin relatively decrease nitrite, nitrate and lipid peroxidation.