Atas A., Celik B., Yildirim Z.

10th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI), Sevilla, Spain, 16 - 18 November 2017, pp.6027-6040 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume:
  • City: Sevilla
  • Country: Spain
  • Page Numbers: pp.6027-6040
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this study is to document design, development, and implementation of a question-answer based instructional design theory. Sigel and Saunders (1977) state that many studies report the benefits of asking questions and being asked questions as enhancing students' thinking and reflects students' thinking process. The impact of asking question or being asked questions are inevitably influential on learning. As students experience quality questions and questioning, their awareness of learning arise (Hunkins, 1995). Walsh and Sattes (2005) also state that when a student asks questions, it indicates that student is not absent-minded; in fact, motivated and attentive. Considering the possible impact of questioning on learning, it is envisioned that preparing course related questions and asking them during the instruction (before, during, after) can contribute students' learning. The main focus of this theory is to create a disequilibrium/cognitive conflict in students' minds in order to probe them to think about their learning process. The source of disequilibrium might be the questions asked by the instructor or students' own internal processes as well. Under this epistemological approach, QAS is an eclectic approach combines principles of various learning theories. Basically, Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory and Bandura's (2009) Triadic Reciprocal Determinism Model framed this approach. The main aim of creating interaction among student and instructor through questions and answers is to create cognitive conflict mentioned by Piaget (1977) as well. The reciprocal inquiry circle during in-class instruction also is a reflection of Bandura's view. This circle represent the continuous questionanswer process between instructor and students like the reciprocal effect of behavior, personal factors and environment in Triadic Reciprocal Determinism Model. Reigeluth and Frick's (1999) Formative Research was employed throughout the research by conducting two main iterations. Data collection strategies were in-class observations focusing on working and not working parts of theory, questionnaires aiming to gather students' evaluation on possible impact of the theory implementation on their learning, motivation and as the last semi-structured interviews to get deep interpretations and evaluations. The convenient sampling strategies was followed by enrolling 12 sophomore students who took instructional design course in a state university in Ankara, Turkey. The implementation lasted 6 weeks. The data were analyzed and reported by considering effectiveness (impact of questions, provided feedback on learning), efficiency (questions types, time, number of questions, technology use) and appeal (fun, motivation, satisfaction, anxiety) of the question-based instructional theory.