Macro- and micromorphological features of fruit and seeds belonging to 12 taxa genera of Matthiola W.T. Aiton were studied via stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. In macromorphological studies, the following variables were investigated: the shape, size, and color of fruit and seeds; the length of fruiting pedicel; the structure of the median vein; stigma (horns); and trichome properties and density in fruit. In micromorphological studies, the presence or absence of seed wings, seed coat pattern in disc and wing, and epidermal cell shape in disc and wing were determined. According to our findings, all characters of fruit and seeds are extremely variable and can be used as criteria to distinguish species of the genus.