Origin and Petrogenesis of Magmatism in Collision-Related Environments: Evidence from the Melikler Volcanics on the Kars Plateau-Turkey in the Turkish-Iranian High Plateau

Oyan E., Oyan V., Özdemir Y., Güleç N.

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY, vol.64, no.4, pp.1-26, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 64 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/petrology/egad018
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Geobase, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-26
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Abstract The temporal distribution of enriched source components and magmatism in continental collision zones provides critical information about mantle dynamic processes in collision-related environments. This paper presents petrology, mineralogy, K-Ar ages and whole-rock major and trace elements, as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of Melikler volcanism in Kars Plateau (KP) in the East Anatolia Collision Zone, NE Turkey, with the aim to understand the role of the subducting slab, the origin of magmatism and the geodynamic evolution in the collision-related environments. Our K-Ar dating results show the Melikler volcanism erupted between 5.29 and 1.7 Ma and allows us to divide it into an early (5.29–2.53 Ma) and a late (2.24–1.7 Ma) stage. Major-trace element abundances, isotopic compositions, EC(R) AFC (energy-constrained recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallisation) and MELTS model calculations of both stages indicate that the least evolved samples were not affected by significant crustal contamination and fractional crystallisation. More evolved samples of the late stage underwent AFC processes with up to 6–9% crustal assimilation; however, those of the early stage were differentiated from a parental magma composition via AFC (up to 2–7.5% crustal assimilation) and experienced magma replenishment at pressure of 0.5 kbar; thus, both early and late stages have experienced open system conditions. The least evolved samples of both stages across the KP have arc-enriched geochemical and isotopic signatures, characterised by prevalent negative Nb–Ta anomalies and moderately radiogenic Sr, unradiogenic Nd-Hf and highly radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions. These primary melts could be derived from a depleted MORB mantle source metasomatised by sediment melt from the subducting Neotethys oceanic slab. Combined trace elemental and isotopic modelling results suggest that the least evolved samples of the early stage were formed by 2–4% melting of an amphibole-bearing garnet lherzolitic mantle source, which was metasomatised by 0.3–0.5% contribution of subducted slab component with a ratio of sediment melt/AOC (altered oceanic crust) melt about 90:10. A depleted lherzolitic mantle source containing apatite and garnet through inputs of 0.6–0.8% melts derived from the subducted oceanic slab, with 5–10% partial melting degree, could produce the least evolved samples of the late stage. Thermobarometric calculations reveal that the least evolved samples of the late stage are derived from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at a depth of 77–82 km; in contrast, those of the early stage are produced from the lithosphere at a depth of 66–69 km. Literature data and the findings obtained from this study indicate that the onset of the Arabian-Eurasian collision may have occurred in the Oligocene and lithospheric dripping caused by the hard collision that occurred around the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene may produce the Melikler volcanic rocks.