© 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.In this study, the effect of early X-ray exposure on infertility was investigated by creating a newborn model with rats. Fifteen Pregnant rats were divided into five groups. After birth, the study was continued with 12 babies (6 males, 6 females) rat in each group. Different amounts of X-rays were applied to the experimental groups. At the end of the experiment, there was found that testosterone levels decreased in all experimental groups compared to the control group (P (Formula presented.) 0.05). When the experimental groups were compared to the control group, there was a decrease in the number of spermatogoniums from all the experimental groups. The decrease in group II, group III and group IV was found to be statistically significant (P (Formula presented.) 0.05). As a result, exposure to X-rays in new-borns and premature babies; It was observed that it caused disruption of caspase signaling in gonad organs, a serious decrease in hormonal activity, a significant decrease in spermatogonia number and a decrease in the number of primordial follicles. Considering these results, it can be predicted that exposure to X-rays in the neonatal period, especially in the premature period, may lead to infertility in later life.