The chronotype, which reflects the circadian rhythm preferences of individuals in their daily activities and sleep-wake cycles, can be considered on a dimension of extreme morningism and extreme eveningism. Individuals with extreme morning and extreme evening chronotypes face many physical and psychological dangers due to accumulated sleep debt, short total sleep time and insufficient sleep efficiency. In extreme chronotypes, especially in extreme evening people, the social jet-lag effect due to the mismatch between social and circadian clocks is thought to exacerbate these dangers. More recent studies have suggested that social jet-lag and chronotype have many negative effects on cognitive functioning. The aim of this article is to review the impact of social jet-lag and chronotype on cognitive functioning.