A 4-year-old native-breed cow had a mass with wide areas of ulceration and hemorrhage at the base of the tail at the same level as the vulva. The tumor was 19 X 13 X 11 cm, appeared red-brown, and was firm to hard, with gritty areas apparent on cut surface. Histologically, the tumor mass was composed of multilayered epithelial cells forming glandular structures with occasional apical blebs and rare solidly packed cells in nests. The stroma included fibrous connective tissue, scattered or periglandular sheets of spindle-shaped cells resembling myoepithelium, several cartilaginous formations, and numerous irregular islands of mineralized osteoid, well-formed bone trabeculae lined by osteoblasts, and many osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells among or near the neoplastic epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic epithelium was positive for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE2) and cytokeratin 19 but was negative for cytokeratin 18. Spindle-shaped cells were stained with alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) and to a lesser extent vimentin antibodies. The cells of osteogenic lineage and spindle cells closely associated with the osteoid showed strong immunostaining for vimentin but not for alphaSMA. Immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase and S 100 protein was not observed in any component of the tumor mass. These findings sugguested that the origin of bone formation was undifferentiated mesenchymal cells with osteogenic potential.