Background and Aim: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is found in the granules of human neutrophils, with many diverse functions. Expression of NGAL is induced under various pathophysiological conditions, for example, infection, inflammation, kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, burn injury, and intoxication, and it has an important antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory role. Patients and Methods: A total of 37 patients with thalassemia disease beta-thalassemia major (24 male and 13 female individuals) and 37 healthy controls (17 male and 20 female) were enrolled in this study. All patients were regularly transfused, and all of them were using oral chelator, deferasirox. Results: NGAL and cystatin C levels were significantly higher in the case group than in the control group. Conclusion: In patients with beta-thalassemia major, renal damage can occur owing to regular blood transfusion. Urinary NGAL levels in these patients may be considered as a marker for early renal injury.