The effect of dexamethasone (Dxm) on trace elements and serum protein patterns was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to brain trauma. After 6- or 24 h of the traumatic incident, the level of serum copper was significantly higher in the Dxm-treated rats, compared to controls (p < 0.05). The corresponding levels of zinc and iron did not show significant differences. The zinc level returned to normal 24 h after trauma. After 6 and 24 h of trauma, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel patterns of serum proteins showed that a 41.6-kDa protein was significantly increased in the Dxm-treated animals. Two proteins weighing 26.6 kDa and 55.1 kDa did not show Dxm-induced changes. These results suggest that increases in the copper-zinc ratio and the changes of the 26.6-kDa, 41.6-kDa, and 55.1-kDa proteins might be a useful prognostic indicator for severe traumatic brain injury.