Present study aimed mainly to assess oxidative stress pesticides such as methyl parathion (MP) and diazinon, which are widely used insecticides and contaminate aquatic ecosystems, on certain biomarkers in various tissues of rainbowtrout (Oncorhynchcus mykiss). Biomarkers selected for stress monitoring were malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant defense system (ADS) mainly reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (GSH-PX), transferase (GST) and superoxidedismutase (SOD) activities in the liver, gills and muscle of fishes exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppm dosages of MP and diazinon for 24,48 and 72 h. According to these results, after the administrations of MP and diazinon promote MDA content in some of the tissues of fishes treated with both dosages of MP and diazinon. With regard to the ADS, GSH-Px, GST, SOD, GR activities and GSH levels fluctuated after 24, 48 and 72 h in all the treatment groups compared with controls. Collective results demonstrated that exposure of fish to pesticides induced an increase in MDA joined with fluctuated ADS. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for assessment of water pollution. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.