The phytochemical profile and potential biological activities of Plantago anatolica Tutel & R. Mill., a traditional endemic food plant of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, were studied. The study included analysis of phytochemical and mineral compositions of lyophilized sequential extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and water) and traditional preparations (herbal infusion, decoction and cold water extraction) obtained from aerial parts of the P. anatolica plant, followed by evaluation of their antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities towards enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome. Chromatographic studies showed that phenolic compounds (caffeic and chlorogenic acids, apigenin and kaempferol), and fatty acids (palmitic and linolenic acids) and an aromatic compound benzotiazole were the major phytochemicals. The ethanol extract and the herbal infusion extracted the most caffeic acid. These two preparations showed significant oxygen radical absorbance capacity (1.9 and 1.0 mmol Trolox equivalent/g dw, respectively), high ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.9 and 0.7 mmol Fe2+/g dw, respectively), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (IC50: 0.87 and 0.34 mg/ml, respectively), and ferric chelation activities (IC50: 0.09 mg/ml). Both preparations showed high inhibitory activities towards a-glucosidase (IC50 of 0.8 and 0.6 mg/ml, respectively), and lipase (IC50 of 72 and 44 mu g/ml, respectively) but low inhibitory activities towards a-amylase (IC50: 4.31 and 5.32 mg/ml, respectively). These results highlighted the potential of P. anatolica as a source of phytochemicals with strong antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties for application in the food and biopharmaceutical industries.