© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Background: Bisphenol S (BPS) is a chemical compound that is utilized in the plastic industry as an alternative to bisphenol A (BPA). The toxic effects of BPS in fish is less known and limited. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of BPS on rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) hepatocytes in vitro was investigated. Methods and results: For this purpose the fish hepatocytes were isolated, and then the cultured cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BPS (0, 15.63, 31.25, 62.50, 125, 250, and 500 µM) for 24 h. The cytotoxic impact of BPS was determined in the culture media using lactate dehydrogenase assay and then, the antioxidant defence indicators were assayed. The results showed that concentration-dependent increases were observed in the percentage of cytotoxicity. The superoxide dismutase activity was reduced, while the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity increased with all of the BPS concentrations. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity significantly increased after a BPS concentration of 31.25 µM or higher, while GST Theta 1-1 activity was decreased by the same concentrations of BPS. The reduced glutathione content significantly decreased with a BPS concentration of 31.25 µM or higher, and the malondialdehyde content increased after BPS concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 µM. Conclusions: The findings determined herein suggested that BPS causes cytotoxicity in fish hepatocytes and can lead to oxidative stress, resulting hepatotoxic in fish. Thus, the utilization of BPS instead of BPA as safe alternative in industry should be re-evaluated in the future for environmental health.