Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content and Karyotype of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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Kulaz H., Najafi S., Tunçtürk R., Tunçtürk M., Albalawi M. A., Alalawy A. I., ...More

Genes, vol.14, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/genes14010047
  • Journal Name: Genes
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: cytological methods, flow cytometry, karyotypic formula, nuclear DNA, Phaseolus vulgarisL
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), whose annual production is 26 million tons worldwide, is one of the main sources of protein and is known as one of the most important food sources. In this study, the karyotype variations and the genome size of four common bean genotypes in Turkey were investigated to determine whether the geographic variables in these regions affected the genome size and the karyotype parameters. In addition, it is known that as that the cytological and chromosomal parameters change under the influence of the climatic conditions of each region, appropriate and stable cytological methods for each plant facilitate and enable the determination of the chromosomal structure and the identification of specific chromosomes in the genotypes of the relevant region. Correct and valuable information such as this enables breeders and researchers to determine the correct shape and actual size of chromosomes. The genome size of the genotypes was measured with a flow cytometer, and chromosome analyses were performed with the squash method. For each genotype, the karyotype parameters, such as the number of somatic chromosomes, the Mean Total Chromosome Length (MTCL), the Mean Centromere Index (MCI), and the Mean Arm Ratio (MAR), were measured. The results showed that the highest and the lowest amounts of DNA per nucleus (3.28 pg and 1.49 pg) were observed in the Bitlis and Elaziğ genotypes. In addition, all genotype chromosome numbers were counted to be 2n = 2x = 22. The Mean Total Chromosome Length varied from 15.65 µm in Elaziğ to 34.24 µm in the Bitlis genotype. The Mean Chromosome Length ranged between 1.42 µm and 3.11 µm in the Elaziğ and Bitlis genotypes. The Hakkari and Van genotypes consist of eleven metacentric chromosomes, while the Bitlis and Elaziğ genotypes consist of ten metacentric chromosomes and one sub-metacentric chromosome. However, the Mean Centromere Index and Arm Ratio differed considerably among the genotypes. The highest (46.88) and the lowest (43.18) values of the Mean Centromere Index were observed in the Hakkari and Elaziğ genotypes, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest (1.15) and the highest (1.36) values of the Mean Arm Ratio were obtained in the Bitlis and Elaziğ genotypes, respectively. Eventually, intraspecies variations in genome size and chromosomal parameters were observed, and it was determined that the changes in nuclear DNA content and different chromosomal parameters among the four Phaseolus genotypes from four different regions of Turkey indicate the effect of climate change in the regions on these parameters. Such information in these areas can be used as useful information for the improvement of this plant and breeding programs.