4th International Congress on Engineering, Architecture and Design , İstanbul, Turkey, 23 - 24 April 2019, pp.215
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted pathogenic protozoan which causes trichomoniasis. Common symptoms in women are vaginitis and vaginal discharge and also serious disorders such as pelvic inflammatory disease, increased risk of HIV trasmission, malignant cervical cancers. Men are carriers and the parasite can cause prostate inflammation. Relation with female/male infertility and preterm/low-weight infant births clearly demonstrates the danger of this parasite. Unfortunately, greater than 75% of men and nearly 50% of women are asymptomatic. T.vaginalis locates alongside the vaginal microbiota and disrupts its flora. Due to the low cost and ease of microscopic method, it has been widely used to detect the trichomonads. However, the accuracy of microscopy is weak, since accuracy depends upon presence of motile trichomonads. In addition, immunological approaches have been reported for diagnosis, but the extent and nature of the antigenic heterogeneity of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates has caused slow progress. Another way is enzymatic method based upon formate production. Trichomonads grown on culture media produce formic acid in large quantities. It can be identified by the simple chromogenic detection of formate in vaginal fluid. The method includes the combination of a sample of vaginal fluid, formate dehydrogenase, the NAD+ and an electron transfer agent. The chromogenic indicator produces a color change by the reduced NAD+ . The presence of increased levels of formate in vaginal fluid correlates with Trichomonas caused vaginitis in patients. This method is fast, simple and doesn’t require intact cells and also specialized clinicians.