Allium species are widely consumed as food all over the world. The phenolic profile of ethanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of 12 Allium species, collected from five different Eastern Anatolia regions, were studied using LC-MS/MS. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were also tested. The multivariate analyses were performed using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. Seventeen of 27 standard compounds were detected in all Allium species. The major components were mainly identified as quinic acid, malic acid, vanillin, and p-coumaric acid. The aerial parts possessed better antioxidant activity than roots. Aerial parts of A. atroviolaceum, A. chrysantherum, A. kharputense, and A. shirnakiense exhibited high cytotoxic activity against DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines (IC50 12.5 mu g/mL). A. shatakiense and A. vineale demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli (MIC 75 mu g/mL). According to chemometric analysis, differences were detected between aerial parts and the roots. The aerial parts of A. atroviolaceum, A. chrysantherum, A. kharputense, and A. shirnakiense could be potent in the pharmaceutical industry while A. shatakiense and A. vineale in the food industry after further investigations.