Listeria monocytogenes (L.M.) is a gram-positive bacillus with wide distribution in the environment. This bacterium contaminates water sources and food products and can be transmitted to the human population. The infection caused by L.M. is called listeriosis and is common in pregnant women, immune-deficient patients, and older adults. Based on the released statistics, listeriosis has a high rate of hospitalization and mortality; thus, rapid and timely detection of food contamination and listeriosis cases is necessary. During the last few decades, biosensors have been used for the detection and monitoring of varied bacteria species. These devices are detection platforms with great sensitivity and low detection limits. Among different types of biosensors, electrochemical biosensors have a high capability to circumvent several drawbacks associated with the application of conventional laboratory techniques. In this review article, different electrochemical biosensor types used for the detection of listeriosis were discussed in terms of actuators, bioreceptors, specific working electrodes, and signal amplification. We hope that this review will facilitate researchers to access a complete and comprehensive template for pathogen detection based on the different formats of electrochemical biosensors.