This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that non-closure of all layers of the uterus during low transverse cesarean section is not associated with increased intra-operative or immediate and late postoperative complication. Eleven pregnant dogs underwent cesarean section for the evaluation of non-closure and closure of all layers of the uterus on immediate or early and late postoperative complication and the effect of suture in tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for continuous variables and analysis for qualitative variables. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. The ranges of wound infection, other morbidity, and mortality were similar between the groups. The average operating time was significantly less for the non-closure group (71.00 +/- 7.11 min) than for the closure group (92.00 +/- 6.12 min; P < 0.005). Adhesion was significantly less (P < 0.001) for the non-closure group than for the closure group. The ranges of myometrial necrosis (5/5: 100% versus 0/5: 00%; P < 0.001) and fibrosis (2/5. 40% versus 0/5: 00%; P < 0.01) were significantly higher for the closure group than for the open group. It was found that non-closure of all layers of the uterus at low transverse cesarean incision had no adverse effect on immediate and late postoperative complication in dogs. Our data show that non-closure of all layers of the uterus at low transverse cesarean incision results in significantly less muscular necrosis and fibrosis than in the closure group. We suggest that non-closure and/or at least non-vigorous locking bur very simple closure of all layers of the uterus at low transverse cesarean incision may be preferential in appropriate cases. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.