III.Eurasian Agriculture and Natural Sciences Congress, Antalya, Türkiye, 17 - 20 Ekim 2019, ss.375-388
Altitude, expressed as elevation above sea level, has several positive or negative effects on plants. While high altitude causes some negatives in viticulture such as low yield, long vegetation period, smaller clusters and grape structure, it has also some positive changes in the fruit content and there were less damage of diseases and pests. Studies have shown that nitrogen, anthocyanin, caratenoid, malic acid, phenolic content are higher in the leaves and grains of grapes grown at high altitudes. In viniculture at high altitude, grapes form a more positive phenolic profile in terms of high tannin and anthocyanin content. Red grapes have a more apparent and dark coloration due to anthocyanin increasing in parallel with increasing light intensity; It has been also demonstrated that polymeric tannin concentrations are increased and acidity is high and pH is low; more aging wines can be obtained The Van Province on the shores of Lake Van has a viticulture culture dating back to the Early Iron Age despite an altitude of 1730 meters. When the climatic data of Van Province are analyzed for long years, it is seen that it has a daily average sunshine duration is 7 hours and 58 minutes. Studies in the region have shown that the Effective heat summation (EHS) had varied according to cultivars and rootstocks; from 1112.6 to 1440.3 degree days (dd) Considering the EHS values in the development period in Van Province and the position of the province in terms of s sunshine duration; Although the region has cold climatic characteristics in winters, it is considered that there will be no problems in reaching the harvest maturity of especially early and middle season grape cultivars and the basin has the potential to be an important center for high altitude viticulture.
Keywords: Viticulture, high altitude, biochemical structure, yield, Van province