Creative Commons License

Bayar E.

in: Theory and Research in Social, Human and Administrative Sciences, Salih Batal,Ceylan Sülü Akgül, Editor, Serüven Yayınevi, İzmir, pp.275-294, 2022

  • Publication Type: Book Chapter / Chapter Research Book
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Publisher: Serüven Yayınevi
  • City: İzmir
  • Page Numbers: pp.275-294
  • Editors: Salih Batal,Ceylan Sülü Akgül, Editor
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Iran launched nuclear operations in 1957 as part of an agreement with

the United States during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah until 1979.

Germany and France began the first nuclear power plants in Iran in 1974.

These nuclear power plant building projects could not be finished following

the Islamic Revolution. In 1980, Iraq attacked the Islamic Republic of Iran,

sparking a war between the two nations. While the battle was still going on,

Iranian officials decided to restart nuclear programs. Iran and Russia inked

a pact in January 1995 to finish building the Bushehr reactors. As a result,

Russia, which possesses sophisticated nuclear technology, has supplied

significant assistance to Iran’s nuclear operations. Iran’s nuclear program

has become an international issue in 2002, when it was uncovered that it

neglected to notify some of its nuclear operations to the International Atomic

Energy Agency. Concerned about Iran’s nuclear program, the international

community applied sanctions to discourage Iran’s nuclear activity. Even

though sanctions resolutions affected Iran, it maintained its nuclear activities.

Iran began negotiations with the EU/3 (United Kingdom, France, and

Germany) nations in 2003, and the P5+1 (permanent members of the UN

Security Council plus Germany) became a party to the process in 2006.

The United States, on the other side, stressed the military intervention

option. Although this difficult process has taken a positive turn, significant

work toward a final settlement must be accomplished because the military

option against Iran has not been eliminated. This prospect poses a huge

threat to the Middle East’s security.

States worried about Iran’s nuclear program began imposing sanctions

to deter Iran from pursuing nuclear weapons. Iran maintains its nuclear

program despite economic losses because of the sanction’s rulings. Dealing

with Iran’s nuclear program only for security purposes limits the scope of

this problem. A multidimensional approach is required to overcome the

problem. Therefore, this study will employ Scott Sagan’s “three model

approach”, which give a holistic view on countries’ aspirations to obtain

nuclear weapons. The Security Model, the Domestic Politics Model, and

the Norms Model are three of these approaches (Sagan, 1996: 55).

The “security model,” which contends that governments acquire

nuclear weapons for security reasons, will be beneficial in interpreting

Iran’s threat assessment. The “domestic politics model,” which focuses on

the primary domestic players who may have a say in the choice to build

nuclear weapons, will be used to assess the influence of Iran’s internal

political system on its nuclear program. The symbolic significance of

nuclear technology/weapons as interpreted by Iranians While doing so, the

“norms model” will be a helpful tool.