Objectives: Agmatine is a cationic amine resulting from the decarboxylation of l-arginine. Agmatine has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, and anti-depressant properties. In this study, plasma agmatine, arginine decarboxylase, and agmatinase levels were measured during manic episode and remission period in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers and 30 patients who meet Bipolar Disorder Manic Episode diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, the changes in the patient group between manic episode and remission period were examined. We evaluated the relationship between levels of l-arginine and arginine decarboxylase in the agmatine synthesis pathway, and level of agmatinase that degrades agmatine. Results: Levels of agmatine and l-arginine were significantly increased than control group during manic episode (p < .01). All parameters were increased during manic episode compared to remission period (p < .05). Agmatinase was significantly decreased both during manic episode (p < .01) and remission period (p < .05) in comparison to the control group. Arginine decarboxylase levels did not show a significant difference between the groups (p > .05). Conclusions: This study indicate that there may be a relationship between bipolar disorder and agmatine and its metabolic pathway. Nonetheless, we believe more comprehensive studies are needed in order to reveal the role of agmatine in etiology of bipolar disorder.