Ocak E., Köse Ş.

FLUORIDE, vol.51, no.2, pp.182-192, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Journal Name: FLUORIDE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.182-192
  • Keywords: Agri province, Cheese, Fluoride, Milk, Turkey, Van province, Water, Yoghurt, DRINKING-WATER, ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS, SERUM FLUORIDE, IRAN, BEVERAGES, PROTEINS, CHILDREN, CHEESE, CARIES, BRAIN
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride ion (F) levels of water, cow's milk, yoghurt, and Herby cheese in some villages, in the Turkish provinces of Van and Agri, in areas where high levels of fluorosis in human and animals were present. The range of the F levels in samples of drinking water for human consumption was 2.36-3.56 ppm and in water for animal use it was 1.76-3.73 ppm. These levels were above the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/L. The ranges for the F content of the milk, yoghurt, and Herby cheese samples were 0.02-0.18, 0.06-0.19, and 0.02-0.19 ppm, respectively. No significant differences (p>0.05) were present between the F contents of the samples taken from caldiran and Dogubeyazit but the F levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in spring, compared to autumn, in the Dogubeyazit district for milk, yoghurt, and Herby cheese. The results indicate that there is no danger of fluorosis developing from the consumption of milk and dairy products produced in the caldiran and Dogubeyazit districts. However, the consumption of drinking water from these districts, with its excess of F may cause fluorosis, including dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and non-skeletal fluorosis. It is necessary that measures are taken as soon as possible to reduce this risk and provide safe drinking water.