Ethnopharmacological relevance: Many of the currently available antidepressants have serious adverse effects and are also expensive. Traditional medicines are major sources of original drugs, and their role in effective treatment is remarkable. In Turkish folk medicine, decoctions and infusions are prepared from the flowers of Anthemis wiedemanniana Fisch. & Mey. They exert antispasmodic and sedative effects and are also used for treating urinary inflammations. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of A. wiedemanniana, which is used against central nervous system disorders in Turkish folk medicine.