Maternal and Fetal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with Hepatic Cirrhosis

Tolunay H. E. , Aydin M., Cim N., Boza B., Dulger A. C. , Yildizhan R.

GASTROENTEROLOGY RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, vol.2020, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2020
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1155/2020/5819819
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals


Aim. The reproductive hormone levels and systemic physiology of women with hepatic cirrhosis are altered. Existing data have indicated the adverse effects of cirrhosis on both the mother and the fetus. Pregnancy is successful in most of the patients with chronic liver disease. But maternal and fetal complication rates are still high for decompensated hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features, etiological factors, medications, morbidity, mortality, and obstetric outcomes of pregnant women with hepatic cirrhosis. Methods. Pregnant women, who were diagnosed with maternal hepatic cirrhosis and followed up in our clinic between 2014 and 2017, were retrospectively evaluated. The pregnant women that had been followed up for hepatic cirrhosis were classified as compensated disease and decompensated disease. Eleven cases were included in this period. Results. The mean age of cases was 33.5 +/- 5.5 years. The mean gravida number was 3.2 +/- 1.1, and the mean parity number was 1.7 +/- 1. Six cases were in the compensated cirrhosis stage, and 5 cases were in the decompensated cirrhosis stage. A pregnancy with decompensated cirrhosis was terminated after the fetal heart sound was negative in the 9th week of pregnancy. Spontaneous abortus occurred in one case (<20 weeks). The mean gestational week of the 9 cases was 33.3 +/- 6.2. Two of the 9 cases delivered birth vaginally. Seven cases delivered by cesarean section. The mean first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores were 6.6 +/- 1.41 and 8.2 +/- 1.56, respectively. The mean birth weight was 2303 +/- 981 g. Among 9 cases with live birth, 6 had compensated cirrhosis and 3 had decompensated cirrhosis. In the second trimester, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to all patients in terms of esophageal varices. Endoscopic band ligation was performed in 3 cases with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The postpartum mortality did not occur. Discussion. Pregnancy is not recommended for patients with hepatic cirrhosis due to high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The pregnancy course of cases with cirrhosis changes according to the stage of liver injury and severity of disease. Although the delivery method is controversial, delivery by cesarean section is recommended for patients with esophageal varices by the reason of bleeding from varices after pushing during labor. The bleeding risk must be kept in mind as coagulopathy is common in hepatic diseases. The maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality rates have been decreased by the current developments in hepatology, prevention of bleeding from varices with drugs and/or band ligation, improvement in liver transplantation, and increasing experience in this issue.