Dil ve Üslûp Özelliklerinin Ayetleri Anlama Etkisi Üzerine Bir İnceleme


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Aydın H.

Fırat Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi , vol.27, no.1, pp.1-22, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Journal Name: Fırat Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: EBSCO Education Source
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-22
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

 Makale, dil açısından müşâkele, ta’rîz, kinâye ve icâzı, üslûp açısından da Kur’ân’ın fiil ve isim formlarını, beşeri teamülleri, sıfat İsimleri kullanması gibi konuları ve ilgili problemleri ele almaktadır. Bir müşâkele formu olan Allah’ın Mekr (Hilesi)i, hasmı (farkına varmaksızın) derece derece olumsuzluk ve helake götüren bir ceza olmaktadır. Ta'rîz içerikli bazı âyet ve ifadeler, ima yoluyla bir şeye işaret ettikleri ve gizli bir niyet taşıdıklarından yorumda sorun oluşturabilir. Kur’ân'da cinselliği çağrıştıran ve sözün açıkça söylenmemesi gereken yerlerde kinâye kullanılmış ve bu gibi yerlerde ifadelerin kinâye ile söylenmesinin ima edildiği düşünebilir. Aynı şekilde Kur’ân’ın olumsuz bir durumdan bahsettiğinde buna kapalı ifadelerle göndermede bulunduğu gibi kinâyeye bir kibarlık ve nezaket üslubu olarak müracaat ettiği de söylenebilir. Kur’ân ifadelerinde icâz yoğun bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Özellikle de Kur’ân’da icâzın iki türlüsü, icâz-ı kasr ve icâz-ı hazif vardır. En çok kullanılan icâz-ı hazfi anlamak için bağlama dikkat etmenin ve söz akışını takip etmenin lazım olduğunu söylemek mümkündür. Kur’ân’ın üslûbu açısından ise ele alınan konulardan biri olan fiil ve isim formunu kullanmasında belagat açısından önemli nükteler vardır. Bunlar Kur’ân anlatımına bir güzellik katmaktadır. Kur’ân beşerî teamülleri kullanmış ve bununla da gaybî hakikatleri aktarmıştır. Kur’ân'da sıfat isimlerinin kullanılması onun evrenselliği ve prototipi hedeflediği, bireylerden çok sıfatlara ve kişiliğe öncelik verdiği ifade edilebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Tefsîr, Kur’ân, Müşâkele, Ta’rîz, Kinâye, İcâz.

A Investigate On The Effect Of Language And Style On Understanding The Verses Abstract: This paper deals with the subject of mushākala, ta'rīz, kināya and ijāz in terms of language and the using of Qur’ān's verb and noun forms, human genre and adjective nouns in terms of style and some other related problems. The punishment or retribution from Allāh (Makr) as mushākala form, which sometimes occurs at the level of a gradual diminution or collapse, is a punishment that gradually destroys the sinner without his realizing it. However, it is possible to say that there is another dimension in Müshākala, destiny, and the formula of the working mechanism of destiny. According to this formula, it is understood that whatever behavior a person exhibits, Allah responds with a similar behavior. Based on this dimension of destiny, it is understood that in one aspect (with the exception of Allah's will), man determines his own destiny relatively, and that his destiny is shaped as a result of his own actions. Some (Ta’rīd) verses and expressions with indirect narrative content were misinterpreted by some people because they implied something too deep to understand by human beings and had a profundity of meanings as well as secret wisdom. The fact is that about the 6th verse of the chapter of al-Mâida: "O you who have believed, when you rise to (perform) prayer, wash your faces and your fore arms to the elbows and your heads too." Shiites misunderstand Ibn Abbas's statement pointed out as "I can find nothing but wiping the feet in Allah's book, but they did not accept anything but washing", and their anointing of their feet is due to such a misunderstanding. In the Qur’ān, indirect expression is used in places that mention about the adab of maram (private) affairs in marital relationships; and that which should not be said openly. With such a form of expression, the Qur’ān is descended upon human beings from Allah to be expressed in indirect expressions in situations where it is not welcome to express clearly. In the same way, it can be said that when the Qur’ān mentions a negative situation, it refers to it with closed expressions, and It can also be said that it uses Kinâya as a politeness and courtesy style. However, in any case, the customary usage should not be ignored while giving meaning to the verse expressions with allusions. In expressions of the Qur’ān, ijāz is used extensively; It is possible to say that a large part of the ijāz is the eliminate of words in expressions. For this reason it should not be overlooked that in some verses that are not understood, some part of it may be deleted for ijāz. In terms of the style of the Qur’ān in the article, there are important points in terms of rhetoric in the use of verb and noun form, which is one of the topics discussed. These give a beauty to the Qur’ān’ic narration. It should not be forgotten that, depending on the fact that the verb expresses tajaddud and the noun expresses istimrar, this situation not only adds a rich content to the content of the verses, but also points to some psychological truths and some characteristic structures. The Qur’ān used human conventions and conveyed the unknown truths to us with it; It conveyed an unknown world with the parameters and facts of the world we may understand in our conceptualizations. Accordingly, although it is stated in the Qur’ān that Allah will hold everyone accountable on the Day of Judgment "…Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Ressurection, nor will He purify them…" (al-Baqara 2/174.), "… Allah will not speak to them or look at them on the Day of Ressurection, nor will He prufy them…" (Âl- i Imrān 3/77) there actually is no contradiction in this to verses. There a deeper insicht will clearify that there is a synchronizotion or an agrement betwin to verses. the Qur’ān uses human practices as a basis. Because in human custom, stopping speaking and not looking at the face are inseparable from anger; A person does not talk to anyone he is angry with and does not look at his face. In that case, it will be understood that abandoning speaking and not looking at the face in the linguistic style of the Qur’ān is an allusion to anger. It can be said that the use of various attributes in the Qur’ān aims at universality and prototypes, giving priority to various aspects characterized by variouspersonalities. Keywords: Tafsīr, Qur’ān, Müshākala, Ta’rīd, Kināya, Ijāz