LIVENARCH VII livable environments & architecture 7th international congress, Trabzon, Turkey, 28 - 30 September 2021, pp.808-826
Considering the reasons of volition for art, the content of Aesthetic Science is questioned. The aesthetic phenomenon, by its structure, involves a process between subject and object interest. The artist, who is a subject, affects and transforms the object by taking an aesthetic attitude. This effect reveals the aesthetic work of art. In certain periods, aesthetic research was directed at the object, and works of art were studied only in the field of objectivist aesthetics. At the beginning of 18th the century, as a result of the Renaissance, human research led to the importance of subjectivist aesthetics. An understanding called a subjectivist or psychological aesthetic regards an aesthetic object as a screen in which the emotions and thoughts of the subject are reflected. It accepts the analysis of these psychic transmissions of the subject as both an essential and only reasonable way to determine the aesthetic object (Tunalı, 2011). From this point of view, it is possible to see every image that forms the essence of the work of art as the embodiment of a style of vision, and every style of vision as a reflection of the trends represented by the subject. Examining the need for art prompt through subject matter leads to a psychological interpretation of the meaning of art. Views through which a person understands the work of art with an inner sense are encountered in the process from antiquity philosophers to modern time researchers (Tunalı, 2011). According to these views, a person has a sense of beauty, which is natural, and the meaning of a work of art is understood only by this feeling. The end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, with the dominance of the discipline of psychology, theory of knowledge, logic and morality are desired to be taken back to psychology, as well as aesthetics and philosophy of art are desired to be based on psychological foundations, taking the same path. These opinions indicate that thoughts and intuitions are weighted in explaining works of art. In the understanding of aesthetics, the whole competence is the ability of thought and image, because it is related to the beautiful spiritual universe. Theodor Lipps, a famous representative of this understanding, is described as the founder of modern psychological aesthetics. According to Lipps: Aesthetics is the science of beauty. “An object is called beautiful because it evokes or can evoke a special feeling in me, that is, a feeling called a 'sense 808 75 Politics/ Policies/ Laws/ Regulations/ Ethics Human/ Behavior Technology/ Material/ Sustainability Philosophy/ Theory/ History/ Discourse Criticism/ Method Identity/ Culture/ Tradition Urban/ City/ Landscape/ Rural Design Interior Design Conservation/ Transformation/ Re-use Education Arts/ Aesthetics of beauty'. According to this, ‘beauty ' is the ability of an object having a certain effect on me.” (Lipps, 1906) Lipps explains the analysis of this special feeling that the object evokes in the subject with a theory that he calls empathy(einfühlung). That is the feeling leading the person to aesthetic pleasure. According to this, the source of aesthetic pleasure is not the object that it grasps first with sensory and then emotional activity, but its own spiritual activity. The subject experiences this activity in an object that is an entity other than itself. (Lipps, 1906) Although the theory of empathy may seem to Lipps as the main requirement of artistic creation and aesthetic pleasure, it is not sufficient to explain the desire for art, given the parallel between the history of art of the period and geographies. Looking at the history of art, there are stylistic variations in the arts of many nations and eras. For example, given the differences in the arts of Eastern Civilizations, another condition should be sought instead of empathy. So what is this "other art prompt"? Can the theory of empathy, which the Modern Western world uses in explaining the psychology of style, be sufficient in explaining the demands of art of other civilizations? Or should another explanation and method be sought? May the empathy, ''which means” hearing something from within", be valid in abstract art while it is enough to explain the art styles of societies that establish intimate relations with the world? Art historian Wilhelm Worringer examines the subject by asking why and how the artist chose different paths in his works, which he has put forward as a review of stylistic psychology. Connecting the distinction between art styles to the inner worlds of artists, Worringer looks for the effectiveness of empathy by looking at concrete examples of art history. As a result of his research, Worringer, who believes that he must look for another point of the handle in processes other than Greek-Roman, Renaissance and Western art, seeks the condition of an art style performed with abstraction (Aydemir, 2015).. He explains the desire for other art with the concept of abstraction, by which he puts against the theory of empathy. According to Worringer, the activity of empathy is a positive interest between man and nature, while the condition of abstract art is a reaction to the negative and insecure nature of the universe. The sense of empathy finds satisfaction in the vitality of natural beauty; the spiritual coexistence with a person, nature and life, while the abstraction found at the opposite pole finds satisfaction in inorganic forms that reject life, achieving abstract, absolute imperatives. In this study, the theory of abstraction and empathy, which has made important conclusions about stylistic psychology, will be studied through architectural works of art. The Theory, which has found a valuable place in the history of art, will be looked at in the private Sanjak mosque. Searching of the other art request at the opposite pole of the theory of empathy, which Western art especially uses when conveying the naturalist style, is considered compatible with the subject of Livenarch 2021: Other Architect/ure(s). In this context, the conditions that lead to empathy and abstraction of style in architecture will be examined and analyzed within the 809 content of the study. By the content reading method, important concepts in Worringer's work of abstraction and empathy will be determined. The concepts detected will again be evaluated based on the physical and qualitative architectural elements passed in the work. In the example of the Sanjak Mosque selected as a sample area, the comparative concepts reached within the content of abstraction and the theory of empathy will be a new and developable step in the sense of studying the style in architecture. In this context, the study aims to make architectural works questionable and meaningful within the content of abstraction and the theory of empathy.
Key Words: Stylistic Physcology; Wilhelm Worringer; Abstraction and
Empathy; Architecture and Physcology; Sancaklar Mosque