Selective Extraction and Determination of Citrinin in Rye Samples by a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) Using Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Precipitation Polymerization (RAFTPP) with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Detection

Meydan İ., Bilici M., Turan E., Zengin A.

ANALYTICAL LETTERS, vol.54, no.10, pp.1697-1708, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00032719.2021.1892125
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1697-1708
  • Keywords: Citrinin, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), microspheres, molecular imprinted polymer (MIP), reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer precipitation polymerization (RAFTPP), rye
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin naturally in many foods that causes carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in the human body. A novel method was developed for the selective quantification of citrinin in rye samples. Citrinin-imprinted spheres were fabricated through reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization (RAFTPP) in the presence of 2-hydroxymethacrylate (HEMA, functional monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, cross-linker), citrinin (template), 4-cyano-4-(phenylcarbonothioylthio)pentanoic acid (CTA, RAFT agent), azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), and acetonitrile (ACN, porogen). The imprinted polymers were shown to be spherical with a high surface area and a porous structure. The rebinding properties of citrinin to the imprinted spheres were also examined in detail. The maximum adsorption capacity, equilibration time, and imprinting factor were 38.6 mg g(-1), 90 min, and 3.89, respectively. In addition, the citrinin-imprinted spheres were regenerated at least 10 times without change in the adsorption capacity. The citrinin-imprinted particles were used to selectively remove and determine the analyte in rye extract. The calibration relationship was linear between 1 and 100 mu g kg(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.35 mu g kg(-1). The method also had high recoveries (98 to 100.0%) and low relative standard deviations (less than 4.1%). Therefore, the imprinted spheres are suitable for the selective determination of citrinin in rye extracts.