Evaluation of pubertal and pathological gynaecomastia in children: A single-center experience

Bitkin E. C., Aymelek H. S., Karaman S.

ANDROLOGIA, vol.53, no.3, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/and.13992
  • Journal Name: ANDROLOGIA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: endocrinology, gynecomastia, puberty
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Gynaecomastia in adolescents is a benign glandular proliferation of the male breast. Secondary causes of gynaecomastia in adolescents are relatively rare and may result from a wide variety of rare pathological conditions. Among these, klinefelter syndrome, complete androgen resistance, adrenal tumours and oestrogen-secreting testicular tumours, hypogonadism, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease and medications play a role in aetiology. The aim of our study is to review the demographic characteristics, hormone profile, aetiological characteristics of paediatric gynaecomastia patients admitted to a single center and to determine the frequency of pathological gynaecomastia. Forty-three male patients with gynaecomastia who applied to the paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, physical examination findings, hormone profile, breast ultrasonography and karyotype results of the patients were recorded. There were 43 male patients in our study. Thirty-six (83.7%) of the patients were pubertal gynaecomastia, 7 (16.2%) were pathological gynaecomastia. Three of the patients with pathological gynaecomastia were prepubertal gynaecomastia, 2 had klinefelter syndrome, 1 had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment and 1 had gynaecomastia after spirololactone use. Careful evaluation of patients with gynaecomastia is especially important in detecting pathological types. We reported the rare prepubertal gynaecomastia and klinefelter frequency in our study.