The present study was designed to understand the effects of sublethal concentrations of dichlorvos (DIC) on hematological constituent [red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles (WBC), mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet counts, hemoglobin and hematocrite levels] and serum damage marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in rats at subacute period under laboratory conditions. DIC at dosages of 5 and 10 ppm was administered orally to six male rats ad libitum during the tests for 4 weeks consecutively. According to the results, DIC treatments increased significantly the levels of serum marker enzyme activities, whereas they did not change hematologic constituent except for WBC number treated with both dosages of DIC. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of subacute DIC induced the levels of damage marker enzymes and leukocytosis. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 24: 128-132, 2009.